2-2 Rivera, Edwin 2014 CRC Fuel Injection Technology-Updated

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this is about the latest technology of Gasolene Direct injection (gdi) fuel system in automobile. It explains the metering trend i.e precise fuel mass delivery, targeting trend i.e precise spray targeting, high level functional requirements for the GDi fuel system, stratified combustion system,precie timings with multiple injections etc.it may be much helpful for the readers to know about the latest GDi fuel system.

Transcript of 2-2 Rivera, Edwin 2014 CRC Fuel Injection Technology-Updated

  • Fuel Injection Technology Trends

    Edwin A. RiveraDelphi Powertrain Systems

    John E. KirwanDelphi Powertrain Systems

    February 25, 2014

  • Green Legislation Fuels Innovation & GrowthGlobal regulations are becoming more stringent

    Regulation TrendsMore Stringent standards

    d i i i tidriving innovation EPA 2025 proj.: 54.5 mpg

    NHTSA Fleet avg: 2021: 40.3 41.0 mpgpg 2025: 48.7 49.6 mpg

    GDi E iGDi Engines Projected to be the fastest

    growing market segment over the next 10 years 80

    100

    120

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    Diesel

    Alternative FuelsFuel Cell & Electric

    the next 10 yearsWill become the dominant

    internal combustion engine20

    40

    60

    80w

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    u

    t

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    V

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    PFI Gasoline

    GDi Gasoline

    GDi Hybrid PFI Hybrid

    Diesel Hybrid

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 2014

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    2010 2013 2016 2019 2022 2025

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    o

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    l

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    w PFI GasolineSource: IHS Feb 2013

    2

  • New Challenge for Gasoline Direct Injection EnginesParticulate Emissions

    20

    25Light Duty PM

    Chart from: https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php

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    )

    CA / US OBD Threshold

    7.5 mg/mile difference Threshold = 1.75X Standard

    LEV III 1 mg/mi Phase in0.75 mg/mile difference

    Threshold = 1.75X standard

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    10

    P

    M

    (

    m

    CA LEV / US EmissionStandard

    2.25 mg/mile differenceThreshold = 1.75X Standard

    LEV III (& US Tier 3 Expected) 3 mg/mi Phase in

    Fuel injection technology performance relative to particulate emission standards LEVIII d EURO6

    02013 2015 2017 2019 2021 2023 2025

    LEVIII and EURO6c: Particulate Mass is currently lower than proposed limits Particulate Number will remain a challenge

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20143

  • GDi Fuel SystemHigh Level Functional Requirements

    TIMINGTIMING

    METERINGATOMIZATION METERINGATOMIZATION

    TARGETING

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20144

    TARGETING

  • GDi Fuel SystemHigh Level Functional Requirements

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    TIMING

    METERINGATOMIZATION METERINGATOMIZATION

    TARGETING

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20145

  • GDi Fuel System - MeteringTrend: Precise Fuel Mass Delivery

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    Part-to-part flow variation increases at shorter pulse widths

    Injector Closed Loop Control

    Measures injector electrical signals during operation to determine differences in dynamic response characteristics

    Detects injector-to-injector differences and injector aging effectsj j j g g

    Adjusts individual injector pulse width to balance fuel delivery

    Correction activatedICLC ON

    4cyl. TGDi1200rpm / 3x 2mg / 200bar

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20146

  • GDi Fuel System - MeteringTrend: Precise Fuel Mass Delivery

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    EDM Process Improved coking resistance due to laser drilling

    Laser Drilling

    Improved deposit resistance due to smoother surface in flow holes

    Sharp inlet for improved turbulence generation for lower deposit build-up and Laser Drillinggeneration for lower deposit build up and more effective removal

    Flow Hole

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20147

    Counterbore

  • GDi Fuel SystemHigh Level Functional Requirements

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    TIMING

    METERINGATOMIZING METERINGATOMIZING

    TARGETING

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20148

    TARGETING

  • GDi Fuel System - TargetingTrend: Precise Spray Targeting

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    Fabrication of spray holes

    More consistent spray characteristicsR d d i ti i l l d l Reduced variation in spray plume angle and plume targeting

    Leads to increased precision in spray penetration and cone angle Patternation:

    Single injector Reduced deposit build-up improves performance

    over entire injector lifetime

    Patternation: Center of plumes

    Delphi: First to market with new non-thermal laser process

    Center of plumes (280 injectors)

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 20149

    Delphi ProductionExit Edge consistent

    and no spatter

    Thermal Laser process:Exit Edge Variation and

    Spatter

  • GDi Fuel SystemHigh Level Functional Requirements

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    TIMING

    METERINGATOMIZATION METERINGATOMIZATION

    TARGETING

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 201410

  • GDi Fuel System - AtomizingTrend: Higher Fuel Pressure

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    Motivation for increased fuel pressure: Thermodynamics

    Delphi 400bar GDi fuel system available for MY2018

    Thermodynamics Better combustion efficiency due to

    higher air utilization (improvements reported with fuel pressure up to 600 bar) Market info:600 bar)

    Trade-off versus increased parasitic losses requires careful assessment

    Emissions

    Market info: planned SOPs

    Improved cold start HC emissions due to better mixing and less wall wetting

    Lower particulates - mass andLower particulates mass and number emissions

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 201411

  • Homogeneous GDi Fuel SystemTrend: Non-Thermal Laser Spray Hole Manufacturingp y g High precision material removal provides greater

    injector-to-injector targeting and metering consistency

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 2014

  • Homogeneous GDi Fuel SystemTrend: Non-Thermal Laser Spray Hole Manufacturingp y g High precision material removal provides greater injector-

    to-injector targeting and metering consistency E ll t f lit d h d d ki Excellent surface quality and sharp edges reduce coking

    to improve consistency over injector lifetime

    EDMBefore Injector

    Coking Test

    Injector Spray Patternation

    Laser Drilling

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 2014

  • Homogeneous GDi Fuel SystemTrend: Non-Thermal Laser Spray Hole Manufacturingp y g High precision material removal provides greater injector-

    to-injector targeting and metering consistency E ll t f lit d h d d ki Excellent surface quality and sharp edges reduce coking

    to improve consistency over injector lifetime

    EDMAfter Injector Coking Test

    Before Injector Coking Test

    Injector Spray Patternation

    Laser Drilling

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 2014

  • Homogeneous GDi Fuel SystemTrend: Non-Thermal Laser Spray Hole Manufacturingp y g High precision material removal provides greater injector-

    to-injector targeting and metering consistency E ll t f lit d h d d ki Excellent surface quality and sharp edges reduce coking

    to improve consistency over injector lifetime Non-conventional hole shape production capability

    increases spray generation flexibilityincreases spray generation flexibility

    Improved air-entrainment

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 2014Improved Air Entrainment

  • Advanced Combustion:Trend: Stratified Combustion Systems

    Future system scenario: stratified combustion in downsized turbocharged enginesin downsized, turbocharged engines Enabler for additional fuel consumption reduction

    beyond homogeneous turbocharging and downsizing

    Outwardly opening Hollow Cone Spray Solenoid driven outwardly opening direct injector

    with hollow cone spray for central mounting

    Side view

    Enables low particulate number due to low penetration, rapid spray evaporation, and excellent coking resistance

    Enhanced minimum fuel control: < 1mg/pulse with Enhanced minimum fuel control: < 1mg/pulse with excellent atomization

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 201416

    Bottom view

  • GDi Fuel SystemHigh Level Functional Requirements

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    TIMINGTIMING

    METERINGATOMIZING METERINGATOMIZING

    TARGETING

    Fuel Injection Technology Trends Feb. 25, 201417

  • GDi Fuel System - TimingTrend: Precise Timing with Multiple Injections

    METERING

    TIMING

    TARGETING

    ATOMIZATION

    Multiple injections can be effectively used to reduce particulate emissionsR lt

    Single Cylinder Engine Total Particulate Number Single Cylinder EngineSingle Cylinder Engine Total Particulate Number Total Particulate Number Results: Improved overall mixture chamber

    homogeneity Increased dilution tolerance via local

    TDC BDC TDC

    S g e Cy de g eLow Load (NMEP < 2[bar]), 1200 [rpm]cold engine 1E+0 1E+2 1E+4 1E+6 1E+8

    (#PN/ccm)

    4.5E+6(COV >25%)

    TDC BDC TDC

    S g e Cy de g eLow Load (NMEP < 2[bar]), 1200 [rpm]cold engine

    TDC BDC TDCTDC BDC TDCTDC BDC TDC

    S g e Cy de g eLow Load (NMEP < 2[bar]), 1200 [rpm]cold engine 1E+0 1E+2 1E+4 1E+6 1E+8

    (#PN/ccm)

    4.5E+6(COV >25%)

    1E+0 1E+2 1E+4 1E+6 1E+8(#PN/ccm)

    4.5E+6(COV >25%) Increased dilution tolerance via local

    enrichment and higher turbul