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Transcript of Urban Planners
Hippodamus of Miletus(or Hippodamos, Greek: ) (498 BC 408 BC) was anancient Greekarchitect, urban planner, physician, mathematician,meteorologistand philosopher and is considered to be the father ofurban planning, the namesake ofHippodamian planof city layouts (grid plan). He was born inMiletusand lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece classical epoch. His father was Euryphon.His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the more intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, evenAthens. He is seen as the originator of the idea that a town plan might formally embody and clarify a rational social order.The grid plans attributed to him consisted of series of broad, straight streets, cutting one another at right angles. In Miletus we can find the prototype plan of Hippodamos. What is most impressive in his plan is wide central area, which was kept unsettled according to his macro-scale urban prediction/estimation and in time evolved to the agora, the center of both the city and the society.The "Urban Planning Study for Piraeus" (451 BC), which is considered to be a work of Hippodamus, formed the planning standards of that era and was used in many cities of the classical epoch.
Daniel Hudson Burnham,FAIA(September 4, 1846 June 1, 1912) was an Americanarchitectandurban designer. He was the Director of Works for theWorld's Columbian ExpositioninChicago. He took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago and downtownWashington, D.C.He also designed several famous buildings, including theFlatiron Buildingin New York City andUnion Stationin Washington D.C.
burnhams plan for manila
Pierre "Peter" Charles L'Enfant(French:[pj l lf]; August 9, 1754 June 14, 1825) was aFrench-born Americanarchitectandcivil engineerbest known for designing the layout of the streets ofWashington, D.C., theL'Enfant Plan.After leaving the national capital area, L'Enfant prepared the initial plans for the city ofPaterson, New Jersey, but was discharged from this project after a year had passed.During the same period (17921793) he designedRobert Morris'mansion in Philadelphia, which was never finished because of his delays and Morris' bankruptcy.In 1812, he was offered a position as a Professor of Engineering atUnited States Military Academy, but he declined that post. He did serve as a Professor of Engineering at West Point from 1813 to 1817. In 1814, L'Enfant worked briefly on the construction ofFort Washingtonon the Potomac River southeast of Washington, D.C., but others soon replaced him.L'Enfant surveyed and platted Perrysburg, Ohio on April 26, 1816.Washington, D.C., Indianapolis, Indiana, and Perrysburg, Ohio are the cities that he designed
Plan of the City of Washington,March 1792, Engraving on paper
Augustus Brevoort Woodward(born Elias Brevoort Woodward in November 1774, died July 12, 1827) was the firstChief Justiceof theMichigan Territory. In that position, he played a prominent role in the planning and reconstruction ofDetroitfollowing a devastating fire.Considered a hero upon his return to Washington, DC, Woodward soon focused himself on science (a lifelong interest) and the establishment of theUniversity of Michiganalong similar themes to theUniversity of Virginiawhich was founded by Woodward's friend, Thomas Jefferson.
Detroitcity layout plan circa 1807following the 1805 fire that destroyed most of the city. The map showesGrand Circus Park(top), and some of the present-dayGrand Circus Park Historic District.
Georges-Eugne Haussmann, commonly known asBaron Haussmann(French pronunciation:[ n (ba. ) os.man], 27 March 1809 11 January 1891), was the Prefect of the Seine Department in France, who was chosen by the EmperorNapoleon IIIto carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris, commonly calledHaussmann's renovation of Paris.Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates Central Paris.
Avenue de la Grande Arme, seen from theArc de Triomphe, withLa Dfenseon the horizon.Ildefons Cerd i Sunyer(Catalan pronunciation:[idfons sra]) (Centelles, December 23, 1815 -Caldas de Besaya, August 21, 1876) was the progressiveCatalanSpanishurban plannerwho designed the 19th-century "extension" ofBarcelonacalled theEixample.He was a multi-faceted man who, in pursuit of his vision, gave up a steady job in the civil engineering service; stood for election and became a member of theCortes(parliament); drafted useful ground-breaking legislation; drew up an incredibly detailed topographical survey map of Barcelona's surrounding area; and wrote a theoretical treatise to support each of his major planning projects. He actually coined a number of important words in Spanish, including 'urbanizacin'.
Original plan of the extension of Barcelona (1859)
Walter Burley Griffin(November 24, 1876 February 11, 1937) was an American architect andlandscape architect, who is best known for his role in designingCanberra, Australia's capital city. He has also been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, thecarportand an innovative use ofreinforced concrete.Influenced by the Chicago-basedPrairie School, Griffin went on to develop a uniquemodern style. For much of his career Griffin worked in partnership with his wifeMarion Mahony Griffin. In the 28 years of their architectural partnership, the Griffins designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.
"Canberra, Federal Capital of Australia, Preliminary Plan" - "Walter Burley Griffin's Plan of Canberra as Finally Revised and Accepted"Clarence Samuel Stein(June 19, 1882 February 7, 1975) was an Americanurban planner, architect, and writer, a major proponent of theGarden City movementin the United States.Beginning in 1923 Stein and Henry Wright collaborated on the plan forSunnyside Gardens, a neighborhood of theNew York Cityborough ofQueens. The 77-acre (310,000m2) low-rise pedestrian-oriented development was constructed between 1924 to 1929. It was funded by fellow RPAA officerAlexander Bingand took the garden city ideas of SirEbenezer Howardas a model. This neighborhood has retained its special character and has been listed on theNational Register of Historical Places.
Diagram of the Radburn street pattern showing the cellular structure of the network and the nested road hierarchBruno Julius Florian Taut(4 May 1880 24 December 1938) was a prolific German architect,urban plannerand author active during theWeimarperiod.Taut is known for his theoretical work, speculative writings and the buildings he designed. Taut's best-known single building is probably the prismatic dome of theGlass Pavilionfor theCologneWerkbund Exhibition (1914). His sketches for the publication "Alpine Architecture" (1917) are the work of an unabashedUtopianvisionary, and he is classified as aModernistand in particular as anExpressionist. Much of Taut's literary work in German remains untranslated into English.
Bruno Taut - Hufeisen-Siedlung Britz, Berlin (1925-1930). Neues Bauen
Robert Moses(December 18, 1888 July 29, 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th centuryNew York City,Long Island,Rockland County, andWestchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared toBaron HaussmannofSecond EmpireParis, and was arguably one of the mostpolarizingfigures in the history ofurban planningin the United States. His decisions favoring highways overpublic transithelped create the modern suburbs ofLong Islandand influenced a generation ofengineers,architects, andurban plannerswho spread his philosophies across the nation. One of his major contributions to urban planning was New York's largeparkwaynetwork.
Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer(18851967) was a German architect andurban plannerbest known for his ties to theBauhausand toMies van der Rohe, as well as for his work in urban planning at Armour Institute of Technology (nowIllinois Institute of Technology), inChicago, Illinois.Street hierarchywas first elaborated by Ludwig Hilberseimer in his bookCity Plan, 1927. Hilberseimer emphasized safety for school-age children to walk to school while increasing the speed of the vehicular circulation system.
Buisness city at the Gendarmenmarket 1928
Edmund Norwood Bacon(May 2, 1910 October 14, 2005) was a notedAmericanurban planner,architect,educatorandauthor. During his tenure as the Executive Director of thePhiladelphiaCity Planning Commission from 1949 to 1970, his visions shaped today's Philadelphia, the city in which he was born, to the extent that he is sometimes described as "The Father of Modern Philadelphia." Bacon won numerous honors including theFrank P. Brown Medalin 1962, theAmerican Institute of PlannersDistinguished Service Award, thePhiladelphia Award, and an honorary doctorate from Penn. From 2004 until his death at the age of 95, Bacon helped found and served as an Honorary Director of the foundation that bears his name,The Ed Bacon Foundation.
Peter Calthorpe(born 1949) is aSan Francisco-based architect, urban designer and urban planner. He is a founding member of theCongress for New Urbanism, a Chicago-based advocacy group formed in 1992 that promotes sustainable building practices. In 1989 he proposed the concept of "Pedestrian Pocket" an up to 110 acres (45ha) pedestrian friendly, transit linked, mixed-use urban area with a park at its centre. The Pedestrian Pocket mixes low-rise high-density housing, commercial and retail uses. The concept had a number of similarities withEbenezer Howard'sGarden City, and aimed to be an alternative to the than usual low-density residential su