Tuberculosis diagnostics

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Information about diagnostic methods and techniques for tuberculosis including microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, mycobacterial culture, molecular techniques (line probe assay, Xpert MTB/RIF), interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and tuberculin skin test (TST)

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  • 1. TB S a n t i S i l a i r a t a n a , M DDivision of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine,Facul ty of Medicine Vaj i ra Hospi talNavamindradhiraj Unive r s i ty

2. Overview of Tuberculosis 3. TuberculosisESTIMATEDINCIDENCE1,788,0431,334,066627,047362,819360,767278,392251,685241,537236,885195,207194,627160,688144,942137,260110,319106,20189,35186,13085,01584,54679,656WHO. Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing: WHO report 2005. Geneva: WHO, 2005.2.More people die from TB than from anyPovertyCongregationHIV pandemic 4. Tuberculosis-HIV Coinfectionresistant, it is estimated that overcountries) in active TB cases.countries or the volume of testing.Figure 5PREVALENT ADULT TB CASES COINFECTED WITH HIV, 2004Source: reference 3.Dye C, Watt CJ, Bleed DM et al. Journal of American Medical Association 2005; 293:2767-75. 5. The Gap between Estimated and Notified CasesEstimated TB cases8.8 Million4.1 Million casesRecorded & reportedHealthfacilityTB casesDiagnostictestsreportedDetected butnot notifiedprivate sectormilitaryprisonsWHO. Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing: WHO report 2005. Geneva: WHO, 2005. 6. Multidrug-resistant and Extensively drug-resistant TBMultidrug-resistant (MDR) TBResistance against at leastrifampicin and isoniazidExtensively drug-resistant (XDR) TBMDR-TB PLUSResistance to any fluoroquinolonesAND1 injectable second-line agentsOGrady J, Maeurer M, Mwaba P et al. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2011, 17; 134-141.(ethionamide, prothionamide, cycloserine, terizidone,para-aminosalicylic acid, clofazimine, amoxicillin-clavula-nate,are those used directly on patient samples where a setof drug-containing and drug-free media is inoculated136 Infectious diseasesFigure 2 Estimated percentage of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis among new tuberculosis cases, 2008a, 0 to