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    THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    SUDHESH N.T Assistant Professor

    Sudhesh.nt@gmail.com

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    CONCEPT OF PESONA!"T# 

     Latin word persona

     Allport - “dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”

     Cattell – “it is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation”

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     ersonality is dynamic  !rganized and not static  "ncludes physical# mental $ emotional

    traits  %nique and speci&c  Adjustment to one's environment

     ()hi*its self consciousness  !rganization of psychophysical

    systems

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     +ometimes disorganized  roduct of heredity and environment 

    "t is an end product of learning $acquisition  ,easured one 

    "ts just an estimation  +ystem of emotional disposition

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    THEO"ES OF PESONA!"T# 

     *road categories

     .ype approach# trait# psycho-analytic and humanistic approach/

    0ippocrates# 1retschmer $ +heldon

    Ancient "ndian concept – Ayurveda

    2ata3wind4# pitt3*ile4 and 5uf3mucus4 – 6 *asic elements of *ody

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    C!ASS"F"CAT"ON $ A#U%EDA

    Dominance of the

    Element

    Personalit& T&'e

    Somatic characteristi

    cs

    Personalit& characteristi

    cs

    Air $ (ther 3space4

    2ata +lightly *uilt# dull dar5 hair

    and eyes# dry rough s5in# su7er from stii7  joints# constipation

    8estless with active minds#

    emotionally insecure# poor memory# insomnia# depression# good artists and

    enjoying travelling# solitary $ re*ellious

    9ater $ (arth 1apha :ig *oned#overweight# Lot of sleep#rational spea5 $

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    Dominance of the

    Element

    Personalit& T&'e

    Somatic characteristi

    cs

    Personalit& characteristi

    cs

    ;ire $ 9ater itta

    Average *uild# rudy comple)ion or

    red hair# moles# ;rec5les or acne# tendency to go grey $ *ald early# green eyes

    "ntense# argumentative# critical sharp intelligence#

    good leaders# enjoy sports# hunting# politics# vivid dreams

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    H"PPOCATES

     Classi&ed *y *ody

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    (ETSCH)E

     According to :iological .ypes with respect to the physical structure

     y5nic 3fat *ody4 – socia*le# jolly# easy going

     Athletic 3*alanced *ody4 – energetic# optimistic# adjusta*le

     Leptosomatic3lean$ thin4 – unsocia*le# reserved# shy# sensitive# pessimistic

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    SHE!DON

     hysical structure – temperament  (ndomorphic – highly developed

    viscera – easy going# socia*le#

    a7ectionate  ,esomorphic – *alanced viscera –

    craving for muscular activity# self-

    assertive# loves ris5 $ adventure  (ctomorphic – undeveloped viscera

    – pessimistic# unsocia*le# reserved/

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    AD"CA! *EHA%"O"S)

     Learning .heories

     Classical and !perant Conditioning

     avlov# .horndi5e and :/; +5inner

     8einforcement theory – .he *asis of :ehaviour

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    *.F S+inner ,-/0 $-/1

     *orn in +usquehanna# ennsylvania

     elder of two sons

     “ " was taught to fear >od# the police# and

    what people will thin5 ” 3+5inner# ?@B#

    p/ B4/

     ()periments designed to test certain

    hypotheses

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     8einforcement – .he *asis of *ehavior

     .he act of strengthening a response *y adding a reward# thus increasing the

    li5elihood that the response will *e repeated  8espondent *ehavior and operant *ehavior

      A response made to or elicited *y a speci&c stimulus/ (gD 5nee jer5

      :ehavior emitted spontaneously or voluntarily that operates on the environment to change it/ (gD +neezing# any 0uman *ehavior

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     +5inner *o)

     +chedules of reinforcement

     8einforcer and reinforcement

     Eegative reinforces and punishment

     +haping :ehavior

     Chaining :ehavior

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    Positi2e and Negati2e

    einforcement A pleasant e)perience is given as a reinforcer or reward immediately after the desira*le response occurs/

     An unpleasant e)perience is withdrawn from the situation provided the desira*le response is given/

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    Punishment 

    Eegative reinforcement is the elimination of an unpleasant e)perience whereas punishment

    involves presentation of an unpleasant

    e)perience/

     (7ect of punishment is uncertain

     Eormally do not strengthen *ehavior

     Li5ely to produce undesira*le emotional e7ects

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    Sha'ing *eha2ior

     0ow are these comple) *ehaviors learnedF

     0ow can an e)perimenter or a parent rein-force and condition a pigeon or a child to perform *ehaviors that are not li5ely to occur spontaneouslyF

     ,ethod of successive appro)imation or +haping

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    Sha'ing

     An e)planation for the acquisition of comple) *ehavior/ :ehavior

    such as learning to spea5 will *ereinforced only as it comes to appro)imate or approach the

    &nal desired *ehavior/  +uperstitious *ehaviour

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    +elf control – the a*ility to e)ert control over the varia*les that determine our *ehavior

    +elf-control techniques – stimulus avoidance

    Applications of operant conditioning – *ehavior modi&cations# to5en economy programs

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    Schedules of

    einforcement Continuous reinforcement schedule/

     Fixed interval reinforcement schedule/

     Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule/

     Variable reinforcement schedule/

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    TA"T APPOACH 

     .houghts# ;eelings# Actions  “,ay *e de&ned as a property

    within the individual that accounts for his unique *ut relatively sta*le

    reactions to environment”

     >/9 Allport# 8/: Cattell# 0/G (ysenc5

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    A!!POT3S THEO# OF PESONA! D"SPOST"ON 

    :asic unit of personality  Cardinal traits – primary# dominant#

     Central traits – few characteristic

    tendencies# less pervasive# generalized

    *ehaviour

     +econdary traits – not dominant as such#

    modi&a*le - attitudes

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    CATTE!!3S THEO# $ trait a''raoch

     +tructure of personality  Common traits – widely distri*uted/

    (/g/ 0onesty# aggression# co-operation  %nique traits – unique to a person/

    (/g/ emotional reactions/  +urface traits – overt manifestation of *ehr/

    (gD dependa*ility# curiosity

     +ource traits – underlying stctr that determines *ehavior of idvdl/ "ndirectone/ (/g/ dominance# su*mission

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    E#SENC(3S THEO# 

     .raits in to .ypes  >roup of correlated traits

     ersonality .ypes   "ntrovert – e)trovert

      Eeurotic – sta*ility

      sychotic – normal

     Hynamics of personality   ;our hierarchical levels

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     +peci&c response level – child e)hi*its a particular response to a situation/

     0a*itual response level – similar responses in similar situations

     .rait level – form *ehr patterns/ (gD socia*ility

     .ype level – highest level# correlated traits integrate to form a type# cooperation# eager – e)trovert/

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    HU)"N"ST"C APPOACH

     Carl 8ogers – self theory  Client – centered therapy

     +tructure of pty – organism $ self  

    "deal self   Hynamics – develop $ e)pand self   !rganism# self# ideal self $ e)ternal reality –

    components

     +elf image 3self concept4 $ actual image 3real self4