Introduction of innovate membranes in water- 2013-2/advanced/Introduction of...آ  2014-04-10آ ...

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  • Introduction of innovate membranes in water-treatment

    Young June Won

    Water Environment-Membrane Technology Lab. School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Korea

    2013. 11. 12

  • Source:UNEP/ GWI *IPCC : Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change

    Plentiful Supply Relatively sufficient Insufficient water

    Water stress Water scarcity

    IPCC(유엔 국제 기후변화 위원회)* 는 지구온난화와 엘니뇨 현상으로 21세기말 지구의 기온은 6.4도, 해수면은 59Cm 상승되어 물 부족 사태가 가속화될 것으로 전망함.

    세계 수자원 시장 전망

  • WATER TREATMENT BUSINESS

    Schematic Diagram for Water Treatment

    수처리는 사용 목적에 맞도록 물의 품질을 개선시키는 모든 처리를 말하며,

    고도처리를 통한 Water Reuse는 해수 담수화와 더불어 가장 빠르게 확보할 수 있는 대체 수자원 공급 방법임

    고도처리의 종류에는 Membrane, UV, Ozone, GAC 등이 있음

    * WWT: Waste-Water Treatment

    Q ua

    lit y

    of W

    at er

    Source

    Usage

    Wastewater

    Water Reuse

    Effluent

    Time Sequence

    • Agricultural : 74% • Municipal : 14% • Industrial : 12%

    • Surface / Ground water : 3% • Seawater : 97%

    (Global market 2005~2015,IDA report)

    : Core business segment

    • Advanced WWT • Reuse Treatment

    • Conventional WWT*

    • Desalination • Water Treatment

  • Hydrology Molecular biology Surface Chem Nano particles

    Biofilm CFD Catalyst

    Grey water

    Drinking water

    Ecological water

    Recreation

    Industrial water

    Ground water recharge

    Space station Shower water

    Fusion Tech

    Application of Membrane Processes in Water Environment

  • 분리막의 종류 – 공극 크기에 따른 구분

  • 분리막의 종류 – 외형에 따른 구분

    Flat sheet

    Hollow fiber

  • 분리막을 이용한 수처리 공정 구성

  • 분리막을 이용한 공정의 대표적인 문제점

  • Conventional preparation method

    Part 1

  • Conventional membrane preparation

    Process Materials

    Phase inversion by • Solvent evaporation • Temperature change • Precipitant addition

    Polymers: Cellulose acetate, polyamide Polypropylene, polyamide Polysulfone, nitrocellulose

    Stretching sheets of partially crystalline polymers

    Polymers: PTFE

    Irradiation and etching Polymers:Polycarbonate, polyester

    Molding and sintering of fine-grain powders

    Polymers: PTFE, polyethylene

    Source: Adapted from Ripperger and Schulz, 1986

  • Material MF UF RO

    Cellulose esters (mixed) Cellulose nitrate Polyamide, aliphatic (e.g., Nylon) Polycarbonate (track-etch) Polyester (track-etch) Polypropylene Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Cellulose (regenerated) Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Polysulfone (PSF) Polyethersulfone (PES) Cellulose acetate (CA) Cellulose triacetate (CTA) Polyamide, aromatic (PA) Polyimide (PI) CA/CTA Blends Composites (e.g., polyacrylic acid on zirconia or stainless steel) Composites, polymeric thin film (e.g., PA or polyetherurea on PSF) Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Polyetherimide (PEI)

    O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

    O O O O O O O O O

    O O O O O O O O O

    Polymer used in membrane preparation

  • Sintering

    heat

    SilicalitePowder of glass

    CarbonPowdre of graphite

    Aluminium oxide Zirconium oxide

    Powder of ceramics

    Stinless steel, tungsten

    Powder of metals

    Polyethylene PTFE Polypropylene

    Powders of Polymers

    SilicalitePowder of glass

    CarbonPowdre of graphite

    Aluminium oxide Zirconium oxide

    Powder of ceramics

    Stinless steel, tungsten

    Powder of metals

    Polyethylene PTFE Polypropylene

    Powders of Polymers

    Schematic of the process Materials used

    Membrane pore size distribution 0.1 – 10 m Porosity: 10-20% with polymers 80% with metals

  • Application of sintered membranes:

     Filtration of colloidal solution and suspensions

     Gas separation

     Separation of radioactive isotopes

    Sintering

  • • Films of polyethylene or polytetrafluoroethylene are extruded at temperatures close to the Tm (melting point).

    • After annealing and cooling, the film is stretched perpendicular to the direction of drawing.

    • Membranes with high permeability to gas and vapor but impermeable to aqueous solution can be obtained from hydrophobic polymers as PTFE.

    These membranes are ideal for application as

    Membrane Contactors

    PTFE membrane obtained by stretching

    Stretching

  • It is a two step process: A film is first subjected to high energy particle radiation and, then,

    immersed in a etching bath

    Track-etching

  • Symmetric membranes having uniform and cylindrical pores can be obtained.

    • The pore density is determined by the residence time in the irradiator. • The pore diameter is controlled by the residence time in the etching bath.

    Track-etching

  • • This technique is the most versatile preparation method.

    • Membranes with different morphology (porous or dense), structures (asymmetric or symmetric) and function can be prepared.

    • A homogeneous system, consisting of the polymer dissolved in an appropriate solvent, in a single phase (liquid), is transformed, through a process of separation/solidification, in a two phase system:

    • A polymer rich phase, solid, which will form the membrane itself;

    • A polymer lean phase, liquid, which will form the membrane pores.

    Phase inversion method

  • The only thermodynamic presumption for all procedures is that the system mus t have a miscibility gap over a defined concentration/temperature range

    There are several techniques of preparation of membranes by phase inversion, which are listed below:

    EIPS = Evaporation induced phase separation VIPS = Vapor induced phase separation TIPS = Temperature induced phase separation NIPS/DIPS = Non-Solvent induced or Diffusion induced phase separation

    The type of Phase inversion method

    What is the miscibility gap ?

  • Phase diagram in binary polymer system

    Polymer

    Solvent Non-Solvent

    binodal

    spinodal

    Miscibility gap

    A

    B

    Critical point

    A casting solution

    B membrane porosity

    B’ polymer-lean phase

    B’’ polymer-rich phase

    Liquid phase

    B’

    B’’

    Metastabile region:

    No precipitation, but nucleation and growth

    Unstable region:

    Phase separation

  • The only thermodynamic presumption for all procedures is that the system mu st have a miscibility gap over a defined concentration/temperature range

    There are several techniques of preparation of membranes by phase inversion, which are listed below:

    EIPS = Evaporation induced phase separation VIPS = Vapor induced phase separation TIPS = Temperature induced phase separation NIPS/DIPS = Non-Solvent induced or Diffusion induced phase separation

    Phase separation caused by evaporation

  • The only thermodynamic presumption for all procedures is that the system mu st have a miscibility gap over a defined concentration/temperature range

    There are several techniques of preparation of membranes by phase inversion, which are listed below:

    EIPS = Evaporation induced phase separation VIPS = Vapor induced phase separation TIPS = Temperature induced phase separation NIPS/DIPS = Non-Solvent induced or Diffusion induced phase separation

    Phase separation caused by vapor

  • The only thermodynamic presumption for all procedures is that the system mu st have a miscibility gap over a defined concentration/temperature range

    There are several techniques of preparation of membranes by phase inversion, which are listed below:

    EIPS = Evaporation induced phase separation VIPS = Vapor induced phase separation TIPS = Temperature induced phase separation NIPS/DIPS = Non-Solvent induced or Diffusion induced phase separation

    Thermal induced phase separation

  • Metastabile region:

    No precipitation, but nucleation and growth

    T

    T2

    A

    B’ B B’’

    Solid phase

    binodal

    spinodal

    T1

    Solvent Polymer

    Critical point

    Liquid phase

    A casting solution

    B membrane porosity

    B’ polymer-lean phase

    B’’ polymer-rich phase

    Unstable region:

    Phase separation

    Mechanism of TIPs

  • The only thermodynamic presumption for all procedures is that the system mu st have a miscibility gap over a defined concentration/temperature range

    There are several techniques of preparation of membranes by phase inversion, which are listed below:

    EIPS = Evaporation induced phase separation VIPS = Vapor induced phase separation TIPS = Temperature induced phase separation NIPS/DIPS = Non-Solvent i