Project Management best practice principles, success criteria, 4-phase process/life-cycle and project tools
EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS CHARLES COTTER BEACH HOTEL, PORT ELIZABETH 17-18 JULY 2014
TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Introduction Defining the fundamental concepts Diagnosis and Evaluation of current Project Management processes and practices 4-step Project Management life-cycle/process Project Initiation Project Planning (and Scheduling) Project Implementation Project Closure Summary and Closing
DEFINING THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Project Project characteristics Project Management The Triple Constraint
DEFINING PROJECTS A project is a temporary and one-time endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service that brings about beneficial change or added value A project is a temporary piece of work with a finite starting and ending date undertaken to create a unique product or service A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources to meet the pre-defined objectives Projects bring form or function to ideas or needs.
PROJECT CHARACTERISTICS Temporary Unique Involve new processes Undertaken to achieve a particular aim (deliverables) Value-adding driver of change and improvement
DEFINING PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project. Project management is concerned with the overall planning and co-ordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting the client's requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to the required quality standards. These three (3) project management variables as often referred to as the eternal triangle of project management.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT ETERNAL TRIANGLE
DEFINING PROJECT SUCCESS CRITERIA Projects completed on time Projects completed within budget Projects completed according to quality standards and performance measures Projects completed within defined scope Projects completed by achieving all deliverables Projects completed to the satisfaction of all key stakeholders and beneficiaries
PROJECTS NOT MEETING THE MARK
CAUSES OF PROJECT FAILURE (DISTRESSED PROJECTS) The wrong business requirements have been addressed It's not possible to deliver on the original business case Poor project governance and management Project managers don't usually have any influence over who their project sponsor is Poor project execution/implementation People lose focus on the project's benefits The environment changes
WHY DO PROJECTS FAIL?
INTRODUCTORY LEARNING ACTIVITY Evaluate and rate your current project management practices against the six (6) project success criteria Identify performance gaps Recommend project improvement interventions
PHASE ONE: PROJECT INITIATION PROCESS STEPS/FLOW Identification of a business problem, opportunity and/or need Generation of prospective project proposal/s Evaluation and building of a business case for the prospective project proposal/s Selection and approval of most value-adding project/s Compilation of Terms of Reference (ToR) document, defining and scoping of the project
IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM, NEED OF OPPORTUNITY Conduct an Environmental scan: Micro Market Stakeholder Analysis Macro Perform a SWOT Analysis: Strengths Weaknesses Resources Capabilities Capacity Opportunities Threats
EVALUATION OF PROJECT PROPOSAL/S Financial and numerical metrics: Cost-Benefit Analysis Payback period Return-on-Investment (ROI) Net Present Value (NPV) Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
PROJECT EVALUATION CRITERIA Viability Feasibility Sustainability Profits People Planet
SUSTAINABILITY (TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE)
PURPOSE OF THE ToR Defines your project and its scope Justifies the project Secures funding for the project, if necessary Defines the roles and responsibilities of project participants Gives people the information they need to be productive and effective right from the start
CONTENTS OF A ToR Section 1: What? Background Project Definition Section 2: Why? Purpose Business Case Section 3: Who? Roles and Responsibilities Section 4: How and When? Defined milestones and target dates Initial/head-line project plan
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 2 (pages 30-31) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points
PHASE TWO: PROJECT PLANNING Project planning defines project activities that will be performed, the deliverables and describes how these activities will be accomplished and managed A Project Plan sets out the phases, activities and tasks needed to deliver a project The timeframes required to deliver the project, along with the resources and milestones are also shown in the Project Plan The project plan establishes a baseline which identifies and documents project scope, tasks, schedules, cost, risk, quality and staffing needs throughout the entire project life-cycle
COMPONENTS OF PROJECT PLANNING Resource plan Financial plan (project budget) Quality plan Risk management plan Communications plan Procurement plan
PROJECT ACTION PLAN TEMPLATE Objective (What?) Tasks (How?) Responsible (Who?) Time (When?) KPI (Weight?)
PROJECT ACTION PLAN TEMPLATE
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 3 (pages 38-39) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points
PROJECT SCHEDULING Project scheduling means detailing what activities have to be done, the order (sequence) in which they are to be completed, who is to do each, and how they are to be completed. Project scheduling entails the planning and plotting the following project variables: Tasks (e.g. Work Breakdown Structure) Time (e.g. Gantt chart and PERT/network diagramme) Resources (e.g. Resource Allocation Matrix and Resource Histogram) Responsibility (e.g. Load Chart and Responsibility Matrix)
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS) A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a detailed list of all of the things that need to be delivered and the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project. A WBS is a chart in which the critical work elements, called tasks, of a project are illustrated to portray their relationships to each other and to the project as a whole. It's represented as a tree-structure, with each deliverable or activity broken down into further components. When completed, a well- structured WBS resembles a flowchart in which all elements are logically connected, redundancy is avoided and no critical elements are left out. The graphical nature of the WBS can help a project manager predict outcomes based on various scenarios, which can ensure that optimum decisions are made about whether or not to adopt suggested procedures or changes.
GANTT CHARTS (SCHEDULING TIME) Project Managers need to estimate time accurately if theyre going to deliver their project on time (and on budget) Without this skill, PMs won't know how long your project will take, and won't be able to get commitment from the people required to help achieve the project objectives Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects. It plots scheduled projects tasks/activities on a time-line. When a project is under way, Gantt Charts help PMs to monitor whether the project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows PMs to pinpoint the remedial action necessary to put it back on schedule.
ILLUSTRATION: GANTT CHART
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 4 (page 45) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 6 (pages 60-61) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points
PHASE THREE: PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled This phase involves the execution of each activity and task listed in the project plan. While the activities and tasks are being executed, a series of project management and quality assurance processes are undertaken by the Project Manager to observe, monitor, analyze and control the project deliverables to ensure that the key project objectives are achieved.
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS Resource mobilization and deployment Organizing and delegating tasks Performance Management Project (time, cost, quality and scope) Project team members Contractors and sub-contractors (SLA) Earned Value Management Leading and motivating project team
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONSS Problem-solving/Trouble-shooting Conflict Management/Resolution Change and Scope Management Communication Project (progress/status) meetings Stakeholder engagement and liaising
PROJECT CONTROL The purpose of the control process is to ensure that the project work can be carried out as scheduled. Checkpoints are held throughout the project at weekly intervals and provide the mechanism for monitoring and controlling the day to day work on the project. Performance information is captured and plans are updated prior to the Project Status meeting. This enables the meeting to concentrate on determining what to do next. Defining the control procedures includes the setting of tolerance levels for project performance.
ILLUSTRATION: PROJECT CONTROL PROCESS
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 5 (page 54) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points
PHASE FOUR: PROJECT CLOSURE This process verifies that the project has delivered the required outcomes and that stakeholder expectations have been met. It also makes sure that everyone involved in the project knows how to move forward. Project closeout is a fairly routine process, but it remains an important process. By properly completing the project closeout, organizations can benefit from lessons learned and information compiled at closure.
PROJECT CLOSURE ACTIVITIES Releasing the final deliverables to the customer Handing over project documentation and administration and terminating contracts Communicating the closure to all stakeholders Releasing staff Closing the Project Office
PROJECT CLOSURE ACTIVITIES Perform a Post Implementation Review of the project Close-out report: Assessment of the project against actual performance Quality of management (focusing on quality and risk management) The lessons learnt that can be applied to future projects
LEARNING ACTIVITY Complete Learning Activity 7 (page 65) Syndicate group discussion Present a summary of key discussion points