Critical Thinking in Democracy Education - Tavaana Thinking in...Critical Thinking in Democracy...

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Transcript of Critical Thinking in Democracy Education - Tavaana Thinking in...Critical Thinking in Democracy...

  • Critical Thinking in

    Democracy EducationMatthew Hiebert

    Bethesda, Maryland

    April 4, 2014

  • Opening ReflectionConsider this

  • Manipulative language

    Be afraid

    Grand generalizations

    Ad populum argument

    Listen carefully

    This is important

    Im an expert

    Logical fallacies

    Ad hominem arguments

    Post hoc ergo propter hoc

    Appeal to authority

    Cliches

    Convoluted

    points

    Unfair and

    one-sided Dodging the

    question

    Straw man

    arguments

    Emotionally laden

    Over-

    simplifications

    Sound bites

    Misuse of statistics Out of context

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Propaganda

    Manipulation

    Manipulation

    Manipulation

    Manipulation

  • Overview

    1. First principles

    2. Rationale for critical thinking

    3. Teaching critical thinking explicitly

    4. Teaching critical thinking tacitly

  • 1. First Principles

    What do we mean by critical thinking?

  • First Things First

    Dont take my word for it.

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Starting points:

    Critical versus uncritical thinking

    Higher and lower level thinking

    Blooms Taxonomy of Educational

    Objectives (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Blooms Taxonomy

    Strengths and appropriate uses:

    Clearly articulates learning above the

    knowledge level

    Helps scaffold instruction to engage

    higher levels

    Useful in developing assessments and

    lesson plans with a range of cognitive

    tasks

    Very well developed base of literature

    and resources

  • Considerations

    Be careful of hidden

    biases and embedded

    assumptions

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Clarifying Our Terms

    Blooms Taxonomy (cognitive)

  • Lower Level Thinking Higher Level Thinking

    Knowledge Analysis

    Comprehension Synthesis

    Application Evaluation

  • Knowledge

    Comprehension

    ApplicationAnalysis

    Synthesis

    Evaluation

  • Blooms Taxonomy

    Other assumptions that might be inferred:

    Discrete levels/ activities

    Hierarchy of value

    Implied directionality for teaching

    Assumptions about the nature of learning

    Oversimplifies complex activities

    Suggests teaching and learning can be

    reduced to objectives

    Narrows potential scope of learning to

    predefined list and of course

  • Lateral thinking

    Argumentation

    Bias detection

    Infering

    DeterminingPerception Intuition

    Emotional intelligence

    Critical reasoning

    Inquiry

    Curiosity

    Creativity

    Credibility

    Clarity

    Making connections

    Strategic

    Beyond Blooms Taxonomy

  • back to our task

  • Characteristics of Critical Thinking

    Common characteristics associated

    with critical thinking:

    Multifaceted

    Higher order (meta)

    Reflective and self-reflective

    Deals with validity,

    appropriateness, and ethics

    Partly discipline-dependent

  • Defining Critical Thinking

    Points that come up often in definitions:

    Disciplined, rational, open-minded,

    informed by evidence

    Purposeful, self-regulatory

    Results in interpretation, analysis,

    evaluation, inference

    Applies valid criteria and evidence to

    form judgments

    Considers alternative perspectives

    Integrates new information/ perspectives

  • Putting It All Together

    Potential criteria:

    Disciplined, rational, open-minded,

    informed by evidence

    Purposeful, self-regulatory

    Results in interpretation, analysis,

    evaluation, inference

    Applies valid criteria and evidence to

    form judgments

    Considers alternative perspectives

    Integrates new information/ perspectives

    Characteristics of critical thinking:

    Higher order (meta)

    Reflective and self-reflective

    Deals with validity,

    appropriateness, and ethics

    Discipline-appropriate

    Multifaceted

    Lateral thinking

    Argumentation

    Bias detection

    Infering

    DeterminingPerception Intuition

    Emotional intelligence

    Critical reasoning

    Inquiry

    Curiosity

    Creativity

    Credibility

    Clarity

    Making connections

    Strategic

  • Putting It All Together

    Potential criteria:

    Disciplined, rational, open-minded,

    informed by evidence

    Purposeful, self-regulatory

    Results in interpretation, analysis,

    evaluation, inference

    Applies valid criteria and evidence to

    form judgments

    Considers alternative perspectives

    Integrates new information/ perspectives

    Characteristics of critical thinking:

    Higher order (meta)

    Reflective and self-reflective

    Deals with validity,

    appropriateness, and ethics

    Discipline-appropriate

    Multifaceted

    Lateral thinking

    Argumentation

    Bias detection

    Infering

    DeterminingPerception Intuition

    Emotional intelligence

    Critical reasoning

    Inquiry

    Curiosity

    Creativity

    Credibility

    Clarity

    Making connections

    Strategic

    Potential criteria:

    Disciplined, rational, open-minded,

    informed by evidence

    Purposeful, self-regulatory

    Results in interpretation, analysis,

    evaluation, inference

    Applies valid criteria and evidence to

    form judgments

    Considers alternative perspectives

    Integrates new information/ perspectives

    Characteristics of critical thinking:

    Higher order (meta)

    Reflective and self-reflective

    Deals with validity,

    appropriateness, and ethics

    Discipline-appropriate

    Multifaceted

    Lateral thinking

    Argumentation

    Bias detection

    Infering

    DeterminingIntuition

    Emotional intelligence

    Critical reasoning

    Inquiry

    Curiosity

    Creativity

    Credibility

    Clarity

    MakingStrategic

    Critical Thinking

  • Standards of Quality Thinking

    Rather than getting preoccupied with

    Critical Thinking, consider:

    Clarity

    Accuracy

    Precision

    Depth

    Significance

    Relevance

    Breadth

    Logic

    Fairness

    Sufficiency

    (Congruence)Adapted from Paul, R. & Elder, L (2006) The Foundation for Critical Thinking

  • 3. Rationale

    Why is critical thinking so important in

    democracy education?

  • Rationale for Critical Thinking

    Different ways of looking at why

    critical thinking is important:

    Critical thinking and humanization

    Critical thinking and autonomy

    Critical thinking and community

    Critical thinking in a democracy

    Others

  • Critical Thinking and Humanization

    For humanization and self realization:

    Inherent value to the individual

    Enriched consciousness and awareness

    Not just critical also enhances our

    capacity for appreciation!

    Development of identity and sense of self

    Overcoming ethical servility

    Inherent value to individual freedom

  • Critical Thinking and Autonomy

    Developing autonomy and personal

    agency:

    Capacity for greater independence

    of thought and action

    Intellectual self defense

    Ability to develop and support a

    position, course of action etc.

  • Critical Thinking and Community

    Developing community and social

    cohesion:

    Capacity to empathize with others

    To understand and respect other

    perspectives

    To recognize ones own assumptions

    and biases

    Ability to work collectively and

    collaboratively with others

  • Critical Thinking and Democracy

    In relation to democratic values,

    principles, and processes:

    Supports deliberative discussion and

    debate.. Working things out together

    Helps maintain accountability and

    balance of power

    Necessary countermeasure to forces

    that affect public opinion (state and

    corporate media, lobbyists, group

    think, stereotypes etc.)

  • Critical Thinking and Democracy

    But more fundamentally:

    Democracy is predicated on governance

    by informed consent, which is in turn

    predicated on personal agency

    Therefore

    Capacity for critical thinking is a

    necessary precondition for the legitimacy

    of a democratic government

    Along with others, such as access to

    relevant information

  • 3. Teaching critical

    thinking explicitly

    Approaches for direct instruction on

    critical thinking skills

  • Direct Instruction on Critical Thinking

    Metacognition:

    Refers to awareness and understanding

    of ones own thought processes

    Improves analytical capacity

    Can be facilitated by instruction related

    to thinking processes themselves

    Some of th