C H N O P S

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  • 8. Lect_08_Sulphur_Phosph . . . . , . . . ( ) . . . 2 , , . , . . . . , . .

  • C H N O P S

  • :CO2 + 2H2S + (CH2O) + H2O + 2S

    :CO2 + 2H2O + (CH2O) + H2O + O2

  • Kawah Ijen - , http://www.odditycentral.com/pics/sulfur-hell.html

  • , 24 106 , - FeS2 - CaSO4

  • 25105 , CaSO4, FeS2 FeS, ( 13 105 ), SO42-

    , , .

  • ( ), . , . - ,

  • , ,

  • . , , . , HS-, pH - H2S

  • - , ,

    - --

  • , .. , SO42-

  • H2 , , , , . (CH2O), :2(CH2O) + SO42- 2HCO3- + HS- + H+

  • - ( , ). - - ,

  • , ,

    . (, )

    , ,

  • . ( .) .

    15 . (. 23 , 2 )

  • Alevin, 17 1977 . . . 2500 .

  • , - . , , , (, , , )

  • , . . 2.

  • Alvinella pompejana +60 +80

  • Calyptogena magnifica , . , (Photo by Tim Shank, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewImage.do?aid=2505&id=5704

  • , . - 10-4 ppm ( , CH4, , CO2),

  • :- ( ) SO2

    - H2S

    - - SO42-

    - (CH3)2S

  • SO2, , , ,

    SO2 + H2O H+ + HSO3-

  • ( , ) SO2 SO42-, H2SO4

  • 12 1991 . (17 .) - 24 .

  • Photos show the Earths limb (the Earths horizon from orbit) at sunset before and after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. The first view shows a relatively clear atmosphere, taken August 30,1984. Astronauts were looking at the profiles of high thunderstorms topping out at the tropopause at sunset; different atmospheric layers absorbed the last rays of light from the sun as the spacecraft moved eastward.

    The same type of photograph was taken August 8, 1991, less than two months after the Pinatubo eruption. Two dark layers of aerosols make distinct boundaries in the atmosphere. The estimated altitude of aerosol layers in this view is 20 to 25 km, consistent with measurements made by other space-based instruments.

  • ( ) ( )

  • (CH3)2S - , . , , OH. NO3. , SO2 CH3SO3H

  • SO2, , SO42, (, , )

    SO2, , , ,

  • C H N O P S

  • ?

    : 4 106 - 90 . . - ,

  • ?

    200 , Ca3(PO4)2, ( ) 47

  • . !In 2008, 161 million tonnes of phosphate was mined around the world, according to the latest, as yet unpublished, figures from the US Geological Survey. demand for fertilizers is predicted to grow by 2.5-3% per year for the next 5 years. If that rate continues, the world's reserves should last for around 125 years

  • 47 Corrected: The estimate for the amount of phosphate that could be extracted from the ground should have be 47 billion tonnes not 62 billion. This means that the figures in the pie chart should read: United States (3.4 Gt), China (10 Gt), Morocco and Western Sahara (21 Gt), South Africa (2.5 Gt) and Rest of the world (10.1 Gt).